The significance of Leadership

The significance of Leadership 

Leadership plays an important role in Organisation. If I see my current industry to work in as a business analyst or operational manager transformational leadership is the most feasible style. As an operation manager I have to work in a team always and be prepare to handle any situation. People need to be motivated from time to time as it a very busy job. Transformational leader always think that he can be good leader if only practises what he speaks. They are risk takers, believes on innovation, creative. The foundation of transformational leadership is the promotion of consistent vision, mission, and a set of values to the members. They continuously motivate and set a direction for the team. “Transformational leadership is a style through which a leader who conjures up awareness and interest in the group, boost the confidence level of individuals or groups and struggle to get concentration of subordinates towards achievement and growth” (Bass and Avolio, 1994).

“There is a relation exist between leadership styles and decision making styles and argue that transformational leaders use more comprehensive style (high number of alternatives used, large amount of information and high coordination of different resources of input) of decision making” (Kedia and Nordtvedt, 2002).

The leadership model can be well understood by Bolman and deal four-frame model.Bolman and Deal (1984, 1991) have developed four perspective, or frames for understanding organization and leadership: Structural, Human resource, political Symbolic. As researched for a manager it is difficult to follow all the four frames. Some uses two and some uses three. It is rare to use all the four frames. It depends on the team you lead or team you manage. If you are dealing with a team from political background you are more focused towards political frame. This research suggests that leaders are more towards political and symbolic frames. They tell that it is difficult to differentiate between manager and leader so the use of this perspective varies. This is research help me to understand that to be successful transformational leader I have to focus on structural and symbolic frames which relates to motivation to the employee and prioritizing the responsibilities to the employees.

Ratan Tata Chairman of Tata group has inspired me to be effective leader, manager and team player. He is very private person but while working and making his teamwork he is democratic as well as transformational leader. He is dynamic and always makes his employee work and keeps motivating them. He is full of ideas and makes his team to work on that idea, which has lead to rise of TATA organization. His idea and enthusiasm brought people`s car (Tata Nano), which changed car market in India. He also believes in ethics and principles to be followed while working. He made me understand the importance of leadership and how to be a good transformational leader.

I have been leader for a team for marketing purpose in my graduation college. At that I did not know anything about the leadership style. I was a leader was given some task to fulfill. I was only concern about how the task will finish. After coming to Coventry university I got chance to lead people with different background, attitude and opinions. This was my first experience to lead such group of people. This experience has led me to understand my weakness and strengths. It has taught me how to lead a team with proper ground rules. It made me understand that leaders play important role in an organization, how leader is responsible for proper functioning of the team, what are the roles leader has to adopt to be a good leader.  This activity made me clear about the leadership behaviors and help me to understand that I am a good transformational leader.

From the activity in which I acted as leader helped me to understand my strengths and weakness. From the peers review I came to know that I am calm, a good listener and a good team player. I have good problem solving technique and analytical thinking. They also me helped me to understand the areas where I lack. I have to develop my communication and presentation skills more. I must motivate and encourage others to their task. I must have proper planning to complete the task in time. This review from my colleague will help me in my future work.

I have started working on my weakness and to strengthen them. As an operation manager I have to be time manageable person and also a good motivator. This review has helped me and gave me chance to over come this weaknesses. Some different activities among seminars have helped me to overcome this weakness. The case study J.C Penney has helped me understand further the importance of leader and mainly how to bring changes as a transformational leader in the team and then in the organization.   

As to be leader or future manager the review has helped me to understand better about me as a leader or manager. I understood about how to be good transformational leader and manager. This research has helped to me understand better what is leadership and what are the benefits of being a transformational leader. This study and activities will help me to be to be a good leader in the future.   



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Importance of Ethical leadership

Importance of Ethical leadership

Ethical leadership, defining it as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”… [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behavior can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness (Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).

Ethics is part of the organization, business or individual. Most of the organizations follow strong ethics and some of them change it as per the time. “Leaders spend most of their time learning how to do their work and helping other people learn how to do theirs, yet in the end, it is the quality and character of the leader that deter­mine the performance and results” (Hesselbein, 2010). From organization`s point of view ethics is that tells what is good and bad for that given situation.

Ethics plays important role in the organization. The individual at the top of the organization must follow the ethics. Ethics teaches an individual whether the decision he is taking is beneficial for all the employee or organization. If it is for personal benefit it harms ethical value of the business. In modern world organization are keen to follow ethics but fail to follow them. There are many recent examples, which shows breaking ethical rules by leader of the organization. For example Igate US outsourcing firm`s C.E.O was caught for violating the companies ethics values and policies. For this reason he was removed from his post. This kind of leader leaves a negative impact on the employee of the company and also breaks the ethical standards maintained by other organization.

Ethical leadership generates trust among employees and motivates them for performing efficiently. This creates a comfortable environment in the organization. There can be some rigid rules placed by leaders, which makes employees unhappy but is beneficial for the organization. It builds relationship among the people of the company. In todays era it is to hard to work according to ethics. From time to time situation comes when we have to break our policies. Ethical leaders helps to improve work efficiency rather than wasting time in battles. But besides this ethical leaders can also take advantage of their power. They show a positive picture in the organization but perform other task at high level. This can be understood by the previous example.

People believe that success of the company is in the hand`s of the leader they have. Some follow ethics some don’t. Some of them have followed in positive way and some of them have used it as a power. Satyam computer services C.E.O had confessed that he did wrong doing in the company by utilizing the power of his post.

Bill gates the greatest name in computer history had a bad relation with US government. US filed a case against them for anti-trust law. But this cases and scandal didn’t affect Microsoft and their employees because they trust their leader and he manages people there with great respect and affection. Tata motors in India bared a loss of million for the company and moved their factory out of region of Bengal because it was against their ethical values. Ratan Tata chairman of Tata group believes in ethics and follows at every situation whatever the consequences may be.

For any organization or institute to run properly there is a need of a leader who keeps it together and is responsible for the success of the organization. From the recent examples or earlier examples it explains that company achieves growth when there is a person who is leading it from the front. A great ethical leader has wider perspective and tries to improvise his ideas in his organization. If I take software industry or any other industry ethical leader plays important part in the environment of the organization. Employee get motivated from his affection towards the work, which improves their efficiency and creates positive framework in their mind.


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Change for the organization: Good or bad

Change for the organization: Good or bad

Change is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change. It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change (Mullins 2010: 753).

Change in any organization comes all at once. Organization has to adapt themselves according to changes happening in the market, the technological advancements and also sometimes management disturbance in the organization itself. Some people like changes happening in the organization and some don’t. From the article Blue ocean strategy it explains to us that there are major three hurdles, which come in between the change happening. First is people should understand why change is happening. Second is utilizing the resources, which are there and shifting towards new one. Third comes the employee of the organization. They need motivation and have to understand the need of Change (kim and Marbounge, 2004 ).

To imply change in the organization the best way is to make realize the employee about the reality. For any organization to grow and prosper change is very important. Without change the company will loose their competitive edge. Change is important from every aspect of the organization like customer needs, quality of work, values among the employee. For example Thorntons chocolate made changes in their organization in every aspect to compete in the growing market, which gave them positive results. Change can lead to wrong decision resulting in downfall of the company. For example after suspension of Steve Jobs as chairman of apple in 90`s the company went into loss and their progress rate went down (Faucheux, 2009).

For continuous improvement in the organization change should be carried out regularly. Deming cycle explains a model called Plan-do-check-act, which is a cycle, which should be continues from time to time. This change model helps company to achieve growth and also helps in improvement. This model can be used for a new process and also to change the system, which is already there (Arveson, 1998). If we look at the example of Deming cycle from J.C Penney a retail outlet there new C.E.O took action to bring change in the organization. He first planned what are the changes needed to be carried out to increase their growth. He implemented the activities by launching many campaigns, events and conference`s. He achieved a tremendous growth after these activities, which means he got positive result. The activities, which gave negative or no results, were changed according to the situation (ICMR, 2007).

Manager can resist change in the organization in different ways. The resistance arises from organization and also from individuals in the company. Kotter and Cohen help us to find the way to resist these changes. It is 8 step model manager must follow to achieve affirmative results in the change. Manager has to patient to get the results of the change. It is not easy to adapt to any changes. Sometimes individuals are not happy and sometimes organization is not ready to uphold the changes. Any resistance can stop the change from happening. If the resistance is individual manager has talk with him/her and motivate him/her about the effects it will do on the organization. Manager`s role is to overcome this by bringing the change gradually, giving a direction to the vision made. Achieve some short goal to motivate individual that change will bring something new to the organization.

As per software industry changes are made regularly as demands for customer changes and also competition rises. As from time to time new technology comes organization has to adapt itself. It depends upon the person who manages it and the way he finds the solution for it. Infosys an Indian software company faced problem after retirement of their founder and chairman. He thought to bring some change by appointing young graduates. But new individual were not able to handle the company much effectively he did. The result was that the company started to loose market. From the 4th position globally it went down. They fell back in technology. Employees were not happy with the new management and the way they perform. People started to resign from the company and join others.  It became necessary for Infosys to bring some change. The Ex-chairman Mr Narayan Murthy was brought back and he made changes again in the organization. He researched about the problem raised and planned a solution according to that.

I can conclude that Change in the organization can lead to positive as well as negative results. From the research it is clear that change can be beneficial for the company if it handled by great leader or manager. Infosys tried to change they failed so they appointed back their leader to bring back the company. Manager or leader should have wider perspective while bringing the change in the organization.


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Effective role of managers in an organization

Effective role of managers in an organization

Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over the last century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).

 Managers are the most important person in any organization. These are the people who are leader to the team and have to motivate, give direction to them. Every manager`s main objective is same to achieve growth but their working style and pattern is different. Some like to more participative and some want to be democratic.

Effective manager is one who finds the best style to work according to the situation. Some times team needs some commands to work and sometimes it better to be participative and motivate them and work with them. They have to take decision on their own but consulting all the team members. They should acclimate themselves according to the demands of the situation, requirements of the people in the team and the problems faced by the company (Murray, 2010).

Sometimes situation arises they have to be autocratic and take decision on their own and sometimes they have to be democratic; by taking decision by consulting team member and giving them freedom to think. Mostly managers wont like to be autocratic as other team member are unhappy with the commanding manager (Mathews, 2012). The role of the manager depends on the knowledge and experience of the team members. There times comes when manager have to adopt participative approach when there is need to motivate employee to take part effectively in decision-making (Cardinal, 2013).

A model purposed by Albert Humphry explains the step-by-step action followed by managers. He gives TAM (Team action management) model, which is most helpful to senior managers and CEO`s. It helps them to plan according to the situation given, budget given and team given. Manager has to start with preparation by assigning objectives and time to the tasks. Then planning has to be done as per the task given and finally the implementing stage comes where manger with the help of his team executes the plan (Chapman, 2009).

I will give an example of Virgin group chairman and founder Mr Richard Branson. He is a type of authoritative leader believes in team as a whole. He always believes in team and is good listener to their view and opinions. He tries to give them a long-term plan and utilizes their knowledge to implement that plan efficiently (Preston, 2013). Another example is of late Steve jobs chairman of Apple who was autocratic leader. He used to give decision, which he liked. He used to consult every team member but the final decision was his. He used to command people to do the task and was harsh to people at times. In spite of being autocratic he would change in situation to take decisions. He used to motivate people to do their task efficiently.

I have past experience of leading team of 20 people for marketing purpose in My Graduation College. According to me I used to change depending on the situation. Normally I used to be participative or democratic. I liked to lead them and motivate them to do task. But situation arises when you have to give orders and be rigid. People get too lazy and start to take advantage. Managing people with different attitude is very difficult. As a manager I had to take into account that I be equal to everyone and listen to everyone openly. That time you have to be participative or transformational leader. People start arguing and at that time as a leader you have to handle the situation and give the decision as a authoritative leader. From my point of view I was democratic but use to change, as the situation demanded me to act.

I will conclude that situational leadership is important for any organization, as it is flexible and adaptable to organization. It is simple and is important. He is ideal leader who understands the overall situation and adopts the leadership according to that situation. The negative impact of this leadership style is that it takes into consideration the situation and not the long term goal or plan for the company. This model fails differentiate between leadership style and management style.  It focuses mainly on the individual tasks rather than thinking about the team and the organization. It is combination of all the leadership styles which gives rise to confusion among team members about the behaviour of the manager and the response they will get from him.


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Diverse team: beneficial or not?

Diverse team: beneficial or not?

Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).

Team plays a vital role in efficient working of any organization. A good leader is that who takes the team together and performs the task efficiently. A team can comprise of people from different background, different culture, different views, different ideas and different work ethics. A team can perform well when there are people from different background who have different opinions and ideas. Sometimes it is difficult to produce desired result from such team because of diverse thinking of each individual.

If we look at positive side of diverse team there are many pros. We have people from all over the world with different talent, education background and languages. It gives wider scope for the organization. Individual from different region have different thinking giving rise to out of box thinking, innovation and greater problem solving techniques. Employee`s with different languages and understanding helps the organizations in their market growth and profitability (Calavera, 2013).

Employee have different work culture and thinking while working in their region. Working in diverse team gives rise to misunderstandings and gives rise to conflicts. The diverse team majorly has to deal with communication barriers and social differences.  “Negative attitudes and behaviors can be barriers to organizational diversity because they can harm working relationships and damage morale and work productivity” (Esty, et al., 1995). Diverse team affects decision-making for the task because of diverse thinking and views. This reason can led to low productivity for the company. According to Williams & O’Reilly diversity increases chances of conflict among the employees, mainly emotional and relationship conflict rather than completing task together (Williams & o`Reilly, 1998).

Transformational and situational leader will lead the diverse team efficiently. Transformational leader will handle the team and take part in decision-making, which will bring together all the employee. The Coca-Cola Company believes on diverse culture. According to Muhtar C.E.O of the company “Diversity is an integral part of who we are, how we operate and how we see the future”. As a global company a diverse team helps to understand global market (Coca cola, 2013). Diverse thinking helps to build strategy with individuals from different culture and background. He is transformational leader who gets involve to perform task in team to yield proper results. Similar example is of Bill Gates chairman of Microsoft Corporation who is transformational leader and believes in diverse team. He helps in decision making of the team and motivates employee to work as a equal team.

In computer/I.T industry diverse team plays important role. People from different region have education level and different I.Q. Each individual have distinctive thought process, which is the most important part of software industry. If there are employees from different background it helps the organization to develop more efficient software’s. This industry is more beneficial with diverse team and less beneficial with normal team.

From the research made I think Organization works best with a diverse culture. Diverse people working for a company helps to develop a strategy that covers wider aspect compared to normal team. People from different background help to understand different culture, which helps the organization to cover larger market.


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